USED verdict of the United Nations to save VIETNAM from China invaded
The United Nations Security Council 's five permanent members have the power to veto any substantive resolution:
The five permanent members (also known as the P5 or Big 5) were drawn from the victorious powers of World War II, and at the UN's founding in 1946, the Security Council consisted of France, the Republic of China, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the USSR. There have been two seat changes since then, although not reflected in Article 23 of the Charter of the United Nations as it has not been accordingly amended:
- China's seat was originally filled by the Republic of China, but due to the stalemate of the Chinese Civil War in 1949, there have been two states claiming to represent China since then, and both officially claim each other's territory. In 1971, the People's Republic of China was awarded China's seat in the United Nations by UN General Assembly Resolution 2758, and the Republic of China (based in Taiwan) soon lost membership in all UN organizations.
- Russia, being the legal successor state to the Soviet Union after the latter's collapse in 1991, acquired the originally-Soviet seat, including the Soviet Union's former representation in the Security Council.
Leaders of the five permanent member states at a summit in 2000. Clockwise from front left Chinese President Jiang Zemin, U.S. President Bill Clinton, British Prime Minister Tony Blair, Russian President Vladimir Putin, and French President Jacques Chirac.
See also: China and the United Nations, France and the United Nations, Russia and the United Nations, Soviet Union and the United Nations, United Kingdom and the United Nations, and United States and the United Nations
Prime Minister Quan Minh Dao and Honorable USA Deligators Mr. Dao be introduced as Hon. Prime Minister of VN Prime Minister Dao addressing among the dignified Republicans Prime Minister Dao addressing at Nixon library
The Security Council's five permanent members have the power to veto any substantive resolution:
The People's Republic of China replaced Taiwan in the UN on 15 Nov 1971. The U.S. switched recognition from Taiwan to the People's Republic of China on 1 Jan 1979. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was formally dissolved on December 25, 1991. This left all fifteen republics of the Soviet Union as independent sovereign states. The dissolution of the world's first and largest Communist state also marked an end to the Cold War.
1/ The Republic of China was formally established on 1 January 1912 following the revolution of Wuchang Uprising on 10 October 1911. From its founding and until 1949 it encompassed mainland China (including Tibet and Outer Mongolia). Central authority waxed and waned in response to warlordism (1915–28), Japanese invasion (1937–45), and the Chinese Civil War (1927–49), with central authority strongest during the Nanjing Decade (1927–37) when most of China came under the control of the Kuomintang (KMT). At the end of World War II in 1945, with the surrender of Japan, the Republic of China took over the island groups of Taiwan and Penghu from the Japanese Empire.
The Communist takeover of continental China in the Chinese Civil War in 1949 and later Hainan, Tachen and other outlying islands in the 1950s left the ruling Kuomintang (KMT) with control over only Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu, and other minor islands. The KMT declared Taipei the provisional capital. On the other hand, the Communist Party of China took over all of mainland China and founded the People's Republic of China in Beijing, leading to two rival governments claiming to be the sole legitimate government of China. However, until the 1970s the ROC was still recognized by many countries and the United Nations as the sole legitimate government of both mainland China and Taiwan. The ROC had been a founding member of the United Nations and one of the five permanent members of the Security Council until 1971, when China's representative was replaced by the PRC via UN General Assembly Resolution 2758.
2/ The Russian Provisional Government (Russian: Временное правительство России, Vremennoye pravitel'stvo Rossii) was the short-lived administrative body which sought to govern Russia immediately following the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II in March 1917 (Nicholas' manifest of abdication). On September 14, the State Duma of the Russian Empire was officially dissolved by the newly created Directorate, and the country was declared the Russian Republic (Russian: Российская республика, Rossiyskaya respublika). It is also sometimes known as the "Kerensky Government" after its most prominent leader. It lasted approximately eight months, and ceased to exist after power in Russia was transferred to the Soviets by the Bolsheviks in October 1917.
When the authority of the Tsar's government began disintegrating after the February Revolution of 1917, two rival institutions, the Duma and the Petrograd Soviet, competed for power. Tsar Nicholas II abdicated on March 2 (Julian calendar) and nominated his brother, Grand Duke Michael as the next tsar. Grand Duke Michael did not want to take the poisoned chalice and deferred acceptance of imperial power the next day. Legal authorization for the transfer of power was given by a proclamation signed by Grand Duke Michael. The Provisional Government was expected to rule until the Constituent Assembly later determined the form of government in Russia. The Provisional Government was designed to set up elections to the Assembly while maintaining essential government services, but its power was effectively limited by the Petrograd Soviet's growing authority.
The Soviet Union was founded in December 1922 when the Russian SFSR, which formed during the Russian Revolution of 1917 and emerged victorious in the ensuing Russian Civil War, unified with the Transcaucasian, Ukrainian and Belorussian SSRs. After the death of Vladimir Lenin, the first Soviet leader, power was eventually consolidated by Joseph Stalin, who led the country through a large-scale industrialization with command economy and political repression. During World War II, in June 1941, the Soviet Union was attacked by Germany, a country it had signed a non-aggression pact with. After four years of warfare, the Soviet Union emerged as one of the world's two superpowers, extending its influence into much of Eastern Europe and beyond.
The Soviet Union and its satellites from the Eastern Bloc were one of two participating factions in the Cold War, a global ideological and political struggle against the United States and its allies; the Soviet bloc ultimately lost, however, having been hit by economic standstill and both domestic and foreign political unrest, an event which marks the beginning of the post-war period. In the late 1980s the last Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev tried to reform the state with his policies of perestroika and glasnost, but the Soviet Union collapsed and was formally dissolved in December 1991 after the abortive August coup attempt. Since then the Russian Federation has been exercising its rights and fulfilling its obligations.